Thursday, January 18, 2018

TREE OF LIFE Wire Art - Message in a Bottle, Bottle Art, Jewelry, Handmade OOAK Items



wire embellished glass art bottle, tree of life bottle, wire tree of lifeBeauty from Barren 1

Handmade, one of a kind (ooak)!  I love the lines of a tree with no leaves. This image is almost like the first blooms of spring, but with jewels instead of buds! Bottle is 7"Hx7"Wx1.75"D (7.5"H with cork).  Turquoise Moss Agate accents (bottom stones).

The Tree of Life is a symbol of renewal, strength, wisdom, and immortality.  As a handmade item, while this design can be reproduced, it will never be 100% faithful to this artwork - making this a one of a kind item.  $79

BUY IT NOW coming soon!

More pics of Beauty From Barren 1:
wire embellished glass art bottle, tree of life bottle, wire tree of life
Beauty From Barren 1 - wire
embellished glass art bottle
wire embellished glass art bottle, tree of life bottle, wire tree of life
Beauty From Barren 1 - wire
embellished glass art bottle
wire embellished glass art bottle, tree of life bottle, wire tree of life
Beauty From Barren 1 - wire
embellished glass art bottle


Message in a bottle necklace, one of a kind handmade, tree of life jewelryMessage in a Bottle 1 - Tree of Life

Handmade, one of a kind! Included handwritten message reads "Love your life!"  Keep the message inside, or make your own!  Bottle is 1.75"H x 7/8"W (with cork).  Antique copper-finish chain is 24"L.

The Tree of Life is a symbol of renewal, strength, wisdom, and immortality.  As a handmade item, while this design can be reproduced, it will never be 100% faithful to this necklace - making this a one of a kind item.  $29

BUY IT NOW coming soon!

More pics of Message in a Bottle 1:
Message in a bottle necklace, one of a kind handmade, tree of life jewelry
Message in a Bottle 1 - Tree of Life
(w/out message)
Message in a bottle necklace, one of a kind handmade, tree of life jewelry
Message in a Bottle 1 - Tree of Life
(w/out message)
Message in a Bottle 1 - Tree of Life
(with message)


Saturday, January 13, 2018

Winter 2017-18 PSSM Feed Regime


Jax, 2 months after diagnosis and proper management started, Oct. 2016

So, this is a pretty big list of supplements and feeds lol.  Notice that many of them are single ingredients.  Basically, the Renew Gold is my base (it's not a ration balancer, and doesn't contain a full spectrum of vitamins/minerals), and I add ingredients that seem to help.  If I ever find a supplement that replaces these things with numbers that I like, my life may become a lot less complicated!

Notes about my supplements:
  • Mag Ox - There are many different types of magnesium.  I use mag ox as it seems to help and is very affordable.  At one point, I tried taking him off of the mag ox for about 2 weeks, and he became extremely spooky and started having mild spasms again.  Immediately after putting him back on the spasms stopped and after a week or so the spookiness started to subside. 
  • Baking Soda - some anecdotal evidence led me to try baking soda.  It's used on race horses that tie up (given as a "milk shake" in very high doses which is NOT recommended) and seems to prevent tying up and spasms.  Jax has not had any episodes since starting on baking soda, even with the small doses that I've given (between .5-1.5 tbsp).  He was in the middle of a two week episode (caused by abscessing hooves) when I started him on baking soda, and it quickly stopped the spasms (after abscesses blew) and he began exercising to a much higher level immediately after.  Here's a great link that has other minerals that are good for healthy hooves and healthy horses: https://www.gravelproofhoof.org/bicarb.
  • Vitamin E - many of these horses need higher doses of Vit E (up to 10,000 IU), but Jax gets spooky on anything over 4,000 IU, and does best around 2,000-3,000 IU. Currently, he is off Vit E, though he occasionally gets up to 2,000 IU just to make sure his levels don't decline.
  • B-12, VisionCalm, Baking soda - Jax seems to get touchy around his flanks and sides sometimes after an episode.  My reading has lead me to the conclusion of hindgut acidosis.  B vitamins are made in the hindgut and usually don't need supplemented, but my theory is that if the hindgut is compromised, the B vitamins may be lacking.   I started supplementing them any time he got a little touchy or spooky, but I now keep him on them full-time.  The baking soda (see notes above) seems to help the acidosis issue.

The most important thing to remember is that excessive sugar will cause P1 horses to store excess glycogen that they can't use which will lock up their muscles (especially if they're not in good physical shape - see my post PSSM Science, Theories, and Treatment Ideas).  Spring grass, sweet feeds, regular feeds (many feeds advertised as "Low NSC" are too high), and even some hays are too high in sugars to keep a P1 horse from having symptoms.  A good general guideline is to keep total NSC around 10% or lower (read also the article below about glycemic index); and they need an alternative energy source.

All PSSM horses are different, and therefore the diet/feeds/supplements that help each will be different as well.  Use this information to help guide your decisions, tweak amounts and products, and find the diet that works well for your horse.

It is estimated that about 50% of PSSM1 horses can be helped by diet alone.  Up to 90% of PSSM1 horses can lead a more "normal" life with proper diet and exercise. (REFERENCE: MSU/Dr. Valburg article on PSSM1).

Other things that I've tried with Jax, and have removed from his diet for various reasons:

Feeds:
  • Sweet Feed - unsure of brand, was the feed-of-choice at my boarding facility.  Jax lost weight, and became a hard keeper, so he was put on "grain".  He stayed a hard keeper, and eventually (after 2-3 years) started having PSSM symptoms.
  • Strategy Healthy Edge - 17% NSC - switched to this feed as it was the alternative to the sweet feed.  He did much better on this, but wouldn't come sound.  Still no diagnosis.
  • Alfalfa pellets/cubes - Started on these right before diagnosis.  He did well on these for about 4-5 months, then he started becoming very stiff and tight muscled.  I started feeding him before work, and realized he was having mild spasms about 30 minutes after eating alfalfa.  I'm not sure if he was reacting to high potassium levels, if he had a deficiency that was met and then amounts exceeded... I don't know why it stopped helping and started hurting him, but he can't tolerate any alfalfa now.
  • Alfalfa/Timothy cubes - before I realized that alfalfa didn't work (but I was starting to suspect problems) I tried these mixed cubes - he did terrible on this for the few days he was on it.  The brand I was using didn't have a guaranteed NSC, and I think I may have gotten a high NSC batch. 
  • ADM StayStrong 33 - He really seemed to do well on this feed, but it kept getting back ordered so I decided to try something that was in stock.
  • ADM Metabolic Pellets - He was never "amazing" on this feed, but it didn't seem to hurt and was good for mixing supplement.  Just like with alfalfa, he started having mild spasms after doing okay on this feed for 4-5 months.  
  • ADM Healthy-Glo - I tried this feed when Renew Gold was back ordered for a couple of weeks - it started out okay, but after about 3 weeks Jax was not doing well.  As soon as the Renew Gold came in, I picked up a bag and gave the rest of this away.  It's very similar to Renew Gold in that it's a rice bran and flax product, with high amounts of fat, but it doesn't have copra, and the NSC is 1% higher at 18%.  I don't know why he did so much worse on this, and why he does so well on the Renew Gold. 
Supplements:
  • AlCar or Acetyl L-Carnitine - used as an alternative to higher fat.  Jax did well on this for a couple of months, but when the weather turned cold it didn't seem to help and I took him off for a while.  When trying to add it back into his diet, he became spooky and not quite right, so I took him off and started adding fat instead.
  • Tie-By -  contains Vitamin E, L-Carnitine (not AlCar), chromium, and other ingredients to help tying up.  I tried this before I knew he was PSSM positive, as I suspected he could have a muscle issue.  It seemed to help.  After diagnosis I took him off after hearing that chromium may negatively impact PSSM1 horses.  However, I've since learned that Dr. Valburg has stated that chromium shouldn't be a problem, so at some point I may try adding this supplement back in.
  • Uckele U-Balance Foundation - I really liked this supplement, and Jax did well on it (after initially snobbing it pretty hard - I had to work him up to 1/2 dose over about a months time).  I stopped using it because it apparently tasted really bad, and I had to grind it in my blender to get him to eat it (it's pelleted, couldn't find a powdered version).  I believe the copper is the taste issue, as he doesn't like the Uckele copper that I'm now using (though he does eat enough to get results, he still won't eat a full dose).  Foundation is a really nice supplement if your horse will eat it.



PSSM Science, Theories, and Treatment Ideas

Here is some miscellaneous info and links that I've found interesting.  I'm posting them, partially so I'll review them again later, and partially for anyone who may also find this information helpful.  As always, be careful when trying diet changes, supplements, etc. with these sensitive horses.


Anabolism vs. Catabolism:
This article is on human metabolism, but is good information.  It discusses the hormones (including insulin, glucagon, and cortisol), the types of energy sources used, and more.  This information supports my idea that allowing Jax to eat grass during the first 15-20 minutes of a trail ride helps immensely, then goes on to explain when fat sources are used, etc.   UPDATE:  Jax no longer needs to eat out of trail rides (though he still gets little snacks occasionally!) and he no longer seems to have hypoglycemic issues.

Glucagon - Wikipedia article:
Glucagon is a peptide hormone that breaks down glycogen for energy production.  This process seems to be more efficient in people and animals that exercise regularly and have higher levels of endurance.  I've been testing the theory that raising Jax's level of endurance by slowly upping the mileage that I work him will make him use glycogen more efficiently.  I'll post more on this as I learn more. The Wikipedia article explains the glucagon process.  UPDATE:  Jax is doing much better this winter!  His endurance levels have risen and his muscles are stronger, and as I theorized, he's maintaining better with less effort, and his muscles seem to be working more efficiently.

Insulin:
With my research, I've learned that glycogen is stored quicker in PSSM1 horses than normal horses due to an increased sensitivity to insulin.  Some of these horses also store glycogen in a configuration that is hard for their body to breakdown (glucagon process).  So, while raising the endurance level of my horse to raise efficiency in the glucagon process I came across the problem of him developing "shaky muscles" - it wasn't a full-blown spasm, but seemed to be a hypoglycemic reaction, due to him not being able to release glycogen for energy.  I started researching hypoglycemia in PSSM horses and came across two books (through the google book search) that had great information:

Rice bran prevents high-fat diet-induced inflammation and macrophage content in adipose tissue  "RBEE-supplemented diet attenuated insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and morphological and functional alterations of adipose tissue in DIO mice. These benefits were accompanied by a modulating effect in adipocytes secretion and some biomarkers associated with macrophage polarization. Therefore, RBEE may be considered an alternative nutritional complement over metabolic syndrome and its complications..."

Longer shoeing intervals can impact stifles  Since stifle issues are rampant with PSSM horses, and since these horses can't compensate for hoof pain, keeping their feet comfortable is extremely important - as is knowing how to help (as much as possible) when stifles start acting up.


Wikipedia Article on Triheptanoin - "Triheptanoin is a triglyceride that is composed of three seven-carbon fatty acids. These odd-carbon fatty acids are able to provide anaplerotic substrates for the TCA cycle. Triheptanoin is used clinically in humans to treat inherited metabolic diseases, such as pyruvate carboxylase deficiency and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. It also appears to increase the efficacy of the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy..."

More topics of interest:


Horses in pain tend to have higher cortisol levels.  High cortisol is also associated with thyroid issues.  So does this mean that chronic disease can mimic thyroid issues?  If so, do thyroid remedies help these horses?


Melatonin reduces cortisol response to ACTH in humans:

Awesome graph on how different minerals affect others


More research that I intend to do:  PSSM glut 12, protein lowers glucose uptake intestines, horses melatonin supplementation, Cushings/Thyroid, L-Carnitine supplementation and Thyroid issues, cortisol,

Muscle fatigue, mitochondrial exhaustion, lactic acid, and the supplements that can help

Here is some miscellaneous info and links that I've found interesting.  I'm posting them, partially so I'll review them again later, and partially for anyone who may also find this information helpful.  As always, be careful when trying diet changes, supplements, etc. with these sensitive horses.


Mitochondrial Exhaustion, DMG, Pyruvate Conversion:


B Vitamins and Metabolic Syndromes:



B Vitamin Deficiencies and Neurological Disorders:


  • Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease  "B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level..."
  • Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state  "These results suggest that nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone concentrations while maintaining a euthyroid state. This effect may be mediated through reduction in thyroxine-binding globulin, but other mechanisms may also be involved..."
  • B vitamins and berries and age-related neurodegenerative disorders  "The current research on B vitamins is largely inadequate to confidently assess their mechanisms of action on age-related neurocognitive disorders, their associations with disease, or their effectiveness as supplements. B vitamin supplementation may be of value for neurocognitive function, but the evidence is inconclusive..."
  • Managing a Hot Horse from a Nutritional Perspective  "A sugar-like carbohydrate, inositol is one of the lesser known B vitamins and also referred to as vitamin B8. Inositol is critical for messages sent between different cells, particularly those found in the brain and spinal tissues. The use of inositol oral supplementation has been proven highly effective in treating mental disorders in humans such as anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and depression without any known side effects. While not found frequently in equine calming supplements, this is certainly a nutraceutical that is gaining traction...  The primary role of tryptophan in the body is as a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced by the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and helps digestive movements and clotting of the blood in the case of injury. Serotonin also helps contribute to an animal’s sense of satiation and, thereby, directly impacts behavior. If an animal is satiated by its resource availability, it has been shown that he will be more agreeable and less quarrelsome. Adequate tryptophan levels and, subsequently, serotonin levels help the animal determine that he does not have to “fight” as much for resources, resulting in a more amicable horse. When humans eating diets low in tryptophan were examined, the deficiency of tryptophan also correlated with lower serotonin levels and more aggressive and depressive behaviors."
     

Other Topics of Interest:


Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions - 2008



More research that I intend to add links/info to in the near future: Nrf2, Nrf2 MSM

Tuesday, January 9, 2018

Amino Acids, Growth Hormone, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Symptomatic PSSM Horses

Here is some miscellaneous info and links that I've found interesting.  I'm posting them, partially so I'll review them again later, and partially for anyone who may also find this information helpful.  As always, be careful when trying diet changes, supplements, etc. with these sensitive horses.

Arginine, Asparctic Acid, and Glutamic Acid are all amino acids that help release growth hormone.


Pituitary hormone and insulin responses to infusion of amino acids and N-methyl-D,L-aspartate in horses.
"...In the horse, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and NMA seem to stimulate GH release; arginine and lysine seem to stimulate prolactin and insulin release; and NMA seems to stimulate LH and FSH release. It seems that N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors are involved in controlling GH, LH, and FSH secretion, whereas other mechanisms are involved with prolactin secretion. These results also indicate that gonadal steroids interact with amino acid-induced pituitary hormone release in adult horses..."

"...The disruption of GHR in skeletal muscle and the consequent histomorphometric changes in myofiber type and size and myonuclei number result in functionally impaired skeletal muscle. In agreement with these effects, the histology of muscles of untreated GHD patients is strongly altered, and glucose and triglyceride uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle of GHR mutant mice are affected..."

Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through cell signaling
"The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) system plays a key role in energy production, the generation of free radicals, and apoptosis. A lack of cellular energy, excessive radical production, and dysregulated apoptosis are found alone or in combination in most human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, cardiovascular disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, and cancer..."

Here's a couple more articles related to growth hormone, glutamine, and asparctic acid:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7733028
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11263835
Only the last link pertains to horses, the others are on humans and mice. Some of the growth hormone info may point to why studs seem more likely to be asymptomatic.  


Here are a couple of articles pertaining to arginine, the 1st one is particularly interesting for horses suffering from IR, and the insulin/arginine issue may only pertain to mares (see the 4th link):
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4565209/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10037257


"...The link between excessive muscle glycogen, abnormal polysaccharide and rhabdomyolysis during sub-maximal exercise is less clear. To evaluate the changes in muscle that lead to this energy deficit, muscle gene expression profiles before and after a controlled exercise trial were evaluated in PSSM1 cases and controls by RNASeq... Gene set enrichment analysis revealed enrichment in pathways involving mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, glycogen and glucose metabolism..."

"...In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils..."

Enhancement of Muscle Mitochondrial Function by Growth Hormone
"...The 4-fold increase in plasma GH caused elevations in plasma IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and free fatty acids and a shift in fuel selection, with less carbohydrate (−69%) and leucine (−43%) oxidation and 29% more fat oxidation..."  NOTE: Leucine is an amino acid that has circulated some PSSM informational sites/forums as being vital to muscles - it's interesting that the findings in this study saw a decrease in Leucine usage...

"However, clinical testing with subjects (both genders) ingesting at least 5 grams of BCAA shortly prior to high-intensity resistance training are reasonably straightforward: BCAA substantially decrease muscle soreness, enhance recovery from exercise and consequently improve long-term performance. See:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20601741
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20300014
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566428
.."

Chronic Protein Deficiency In Horses
"Proteins basically provide the structure that makes us and every living animal we know into their unique shapes through the connective tissue of bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscle. They also make up a lot of other things in our bodies including defense mechanisms, sensors, and hair. I know this is basic, but I really want to get a few points across about protein in our horses..."

 

More stuff of interest:


Amino acid polarity:
https://proteinstructures.com/Structure/Structure/amino-acids.html

Amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis, and catabolism:
https://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/amino-acid-metabolism.php#intro